VOL 23
Issue 11v28
Str Date: 2023.332.

Understanding ADHD: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options 


Understanding the Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment Options


Key facts about ADHD:

  • ADHD occurs three times more in males than females [1].  
  • Thirteen percent of males will be diagnosed with ADHD at some point, while only 4.2% of women will be diagnosed.
  • According to research, the average age at which ADHD is diagnosed is seven years old [2].
  • A child’s first ADHD symptoms usually appear between the ages of three and six[3].
  • ADHD isn’t just a problem for kids. 4 % of Americans over 18 years old deal with ADHD regularly.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly known as ADHD, is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting millions worldwide. ADHD is characterized by inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, which affects development and functioning [4].

  • Inattention means a person lacks consistency, wanders off task, and has problems retaining focus. These issues are not triggered by resistance or an inability to understand.
  • Hyperactivity is constantly moving around, fidgeting, or chatting excessively. Adults may experience excessive restlessness.
  • Impulsivity is characterized by hasty behaviors taken in the heat of the moment without prior consideration, a need for immediate rewards, or an unwillingness to defer gratification. Impulsive people may be socially aggressive and frequently disturb others or make significant decisions without considering long-term consequences.

Symptoms of ADHD in Children

The most common symptoms of ADHD in children include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Children with ADHD may struggle with paying attention, following instructions, organizing tasks, completing homework, and staying focused in class. They may also have difficulty waiting their turn, interrupting others, and engaging in dangerous activities.

Symptoms of ADHD in Adults

ADHD can persist into adulthood, with many adults experiencing difficulty focusing, disorganization, forgetfulness, and poor time management. In addition, adults with ADHD may also struggle with impulsivity, emotional dysregulation, and relationship problems.

Diagnosis of ADHD

Diagnosing ADHD involves a comprehensive evaluation that includes a detailed medical history, physical examination, and assessment of symptoms. Doctors may also use rating scales, behavioral checklists, and standardized tests to gather additional information. A diagnosis of ADHD requires the presence of persistent symptoms that impair daily functioning and are not better explained by other medical or psychiatric conditions.

Causes of ADHD

The exact cause of ADHD is unknown, but research suggests that a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors may play a role. Studies have found that individuals with ADHD have different brain structures and functions, particularly in attention, reward, and executive function. Genetics also play a significant role, with a substantial heritability of ADHD demonstrated in twin and family studies. Environmental factors, such as exposure to toxins and prenatal stress, have also been associated with an increased risk of ADHD.

Treatment of ADHD in Children

Treating ADHD in children typically involves a combination of medication and behavioral interventions. Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate and amphetamines, are the most commonly prescribed medications for ADHD and are highly effective in reducing inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms. Behavioral interventions, such as parent training, classroom management, and social skills training, can also improve academic and social functioning in children with ADHD.

Treatment of ADHD in Adults

The treatment of ADHD in adults may also involve medication and behavioral interventions. Stimulant medications can be effective in reducing symptoms of inattention, distractibility, and impulsivity in adults with ADHD. Non-stimulant medications, such as atomoxetine and guanfacine, may also be used as alternatives to stimulants or in combination. Behavioral interventions, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and coaching, can help adults with ADHD improve time management, organization, and planning skills and manage emotional dysregulation and relationship problems.

Challenges in Treating ADHD

While medication and behavioral interventions can be highly effective in treating ADHD, there are also several challenges in managing this disorder. One of the most significant challenges is medication non-adherence, with many individuals discontinuing medication due to side effects or lack of perceived benefit. Behavioral interventions can also be challenging to implement consistently, particularly in school or work settings lacking structure and support.

In addition, there is a significant stigma associated with ADHD, with many individuals and families hesitant to seek treatment due to fear of being labeled as “defective” or “lazy.” As a result, many individuals with ADHD may struggle in silence without access to the treatment and support they need to thrive.


ADHD is a complex disorder that can significantly impact daily functioning in children and adults. Therefore, it is essential to educate the public about this disorder and to provide comprehensive evaluations and evidence-based treatments to individuals with ADHD. While there are challenges in treating ADHD, with medication non-adherence and stigma being significant barriers to care, with appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms and thrive in all areas of life.

It is also essential to recognize that ADHD is not a reflection of intelligence or character but rather a neurobiological disorder that requires treatment and support. As a society, we must work to reduce the stigma associated with ADHD and other mental health conditions and to provide equitable access to evidence-based treatments for all individuals.

In summary, ADHD is a common and complex disorder that can significantly impact daily functioning in children and adults. Therefore, it is essential to provide comprehensive evaluations and evidence-based treatments to individuals with ADHD while also working to reduce stigma and increase access to care. With appropriate treatment and support, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms and thrive in all areas of life.



  • Gaub, Miranda, and Caryn L. Carlson. “Gender differences in ADHD: A meta-analysis and critical review.” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 36.8 (1997): 1036-1045.
  • Rowland, Andrew S., Catherine A. Lesesne, and Ann J. Abramowitz. “The epidemiology of attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a public health view.” Mental retardation and developmental disabilities research reviews 8.3 (2002): 162-170.
  • Scahill, Larry, and Mary Schwab-Stone. “Epidemiology of ADHD in school-age children.” Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America 9.3 (2000): 541-555.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. “Mental health in the United States. Prevalence of diagnosis and medication treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder–United States, 2003.” MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 54.34 (2005): 842-847.
  • Nigg, Joel T. What causes ADHD?: Understanding what goes wrong and why. Guilford Press, 2006.

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