[vc_row type=”in_container” full_screen_row_position=”middle” column_margin=”default” column_direction=”default” column_direction_tablet=”default” column_direction_phone=”default” scene_position=”center” top_padding=”60″ bottom_padding=”60″ text_color=”dark” text_align=”left” row_border_radius=”none” row_border_radius_applies=”bg” overlay_strength=”0.3″ gradient_direction=”left_to_right” shape_divider_position=”bottom” bg_image_animation=”none” shape_type=””][vc_column column_padding=”no-extra-padding” column_padding_tablet=”inherit” column_padding_phone=”inherit” column_padding_position=”all” column_element_spacing=”default” background_color_opacity=”1″ background_hover_color_opacity=”1″ column_shadow=”none” column_border_radius=”none” column_link_target=”_self” gradient_direction=”left_to_right” overlay_strength=”0.3″ width=”1/1″ tablet_width_inherit=”default” tablet_text_alignment=”default” phone_text_alignment=”default” bg_image_animation=”none” border_type=”simple” column_border_width=”none” column_border_style=”solid”][image_with_animation image_url=”1997″ animation=”Fade In” hover_animation=”none” alignment=”center” border_radius=”none” box_shadow=”none” image_loading=”default” max_width=”100%” max_width_mobile=”default”][vc_column_text]What is the Big Bang Theory?
The Big Bang Theory follows a consensus among astronomers, scientists, and cosmologists that the Universe was formed from a massive explosion that formed most material matter and governed the expansion of the cosmos. The theory holds that about 13.8 billion years ago, all past and present matter were simply tiny balls with infinite density and heat known as a singularity which began expanding and thus formed the current Universe, as noted by Matt Williams (2015) The Universe Today.
The Discovery and Proof of the Big Bang Theory
Elizabeth Howell (2017) explains that, given we don’t have the technology to see our past to the birth of the Universe, scientists explain its existence through mathematical formulas and models. It also relies on astronomers’ evident “echo” from explosion expansion through cosmic microwave background phenomena.
Looking at the Universe, just a second from the Big Bang, scientists explain that it was 10-billion degrees, seas of neutrons, protons, electrons, positrons, photons, and neutrinos. With time, these elements cooled, decayed, and combined to form isotopes of hydrogen, and further, the electrons combined with nuclei to form the neutral atoms. The photons from the Big Bang afterglow are still observable as cosmic background radiations (NASA, c2021). Based on this theory, scientists have determined the age of the Universe. With the available data from space mission explorations and mappings, it has been concluded that the Universe is 13.82 billion years old (Elizabeth Howell, 2017).
Stages of the Big Bang Theory
13.82 billion years ago? You could be wondering how it all started and how we came to be in our solar system. Take a look as adapted from Denise Chow (2011):
- In The Beginning: The Big Bang was not an explosion; according to Denise Chow (2011), it was an appearance of space everywhere in the Universe from a very hot and dense single point in space.
- The First Growth Spurt of the Universe. Seconds after the disintegration of the single point in space, the Universe expanded up to 90 times its size, and all this while it got cooler and less dense.
- Too Hot to Shine. The cooling and expansion of the neutrons and protons led to collisions that formed hydrogen isotopes and helium. The heat from the clashes was intense for the light to shine.
- And There Was Light. It took about 380,000 more years after the Big Bang for recombination of the nuclei and neutral atoms. After that, the absorption of free nuclei made the Universe transparent, as presently evidenced by cosmic microwave backgrounds.
- Emergence from the Dark Ages of Cosmos. This period is known as re-ionization and took place about 400 million years after the Big Bang. The gaseous matter collapsed enough to form the present-day galaxies with the emitted ultraviolet light making the Universe much transparent.
- The Formation of More Galaxies and Stars. Continuous re-ionization led to the millions of galaxies and stars in space, with research is still done to discover more formations.
- Birth Ye Our Solar System. Our solar system came into existence 9 billion years after the Big Bang making it 4.6 billion years old. It was formed by a Nebula Cloud, which condensed to form, 99% taken by the sun and other space matter. Further estimates indicate over 100 billion stars in our Milky Way, and we orbit about 25,000 lights from the galactic core.
- The Invisibles of the Universe. Current research shows that there are unidentified materials in the universal space theoretically formed from exotic particles. Known as dark matter, these materials take up 23% of the Universe compared to the 4% ordinary matter of planets, stars, and of course people, or just yet to be known other life.
- A Universe So Expanding and Accelerating. Telescopic discoveries have identified supernovas and concluded that the Universe is expanding and is not static, with dark energy thought to be ever pulling apart the cosmos. This topic is, however, still under debate.
- We Just Want to Know More. Studies are open to all; all theories are welcome, proofs are valid for debates and testing, the field of space studies and exploration is still up for grabs, and people are still in awe of this mystery.
Limitations of The Theory
Every theory has delimiters, and here are some that hold back the feasibility of the Big Bang Theory from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (c2010):
- The Flatness Problem: Geometrical studies of the Universe make it near flat; however, cosmological studies show the growth of the curvature with time which would require extreme conditions for fine-tuning; a coincidence yet to be proved.
- The Horizon Problem: The distance between the horizons of the Universe is more light-years apart than the age of the Big Bang, which contradicts the uniformity of cosmic microwave background that these horizons were once one.
- The Monopole Problem. Cosmic studies of the Big Bang Theory predict heavy, stable magnetic monopoles formation during the early Universe. However, these magnetic monopoles are not evident or are rarer than the theory predicts.
Space may be the final frontier; what are your thoughts?
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (c2010). What is the Inflation Theory? https://wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_cosmo_infl.html#:~:text=Limitations%20of%20the%20Big%20Bang%20Theory&text=WMAP%20has%20determined%20the%20geometry,would%20be%20an%20unbelievable%20coincidence.
Matt Williams. (2015). Universe Today. What is the Big Bang Theory? https://phys.org/news/2015-12-big-theory.html
Elizabeth Howell. (2017). Space.com. What is the Big Bang Theory? https://www.space.com/25126-big-bang-theory.html
NASA. (c2021). The Big Bang. https://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-powered-the-big-bang/
Denise Chow. (2011). The Universe: Big Bang to Now in 10 Easy Steps. https://www.space.com/13320-big-bang-universe-10-steps-explainer.html[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]